I am again in the middle of harvest. This usually gives me the opportunity to talk to growers, packers, and storage operators. I also have the opportunity to talk one on one with Jamaican employees here on H2A contracts. I want to do two things here share with you my collective observations of these men and second perhaps be a voice for them in this life changing discussion surrounding the Wage Board.
First, I am very impressed with the accurate knowledge these men have of the Overtime legislation. You may notice here that I do not refer to this as a collective bargaining/union discussion. To a man they reject the concept of unions and dues.
It is almost unanimous that these men wish to continue working here in New York State. It has become an extremely critical way for them to support their families. The greatest share of these men have found annual employment with a singular employer. They refer to the farm they work on as their own. Many know the geography of these orchards as well or better than their employers. They understand the ebbs and flow of the industry. They know the pressure that frost, hail, drought, and market pricing places have on their employer as well as offering them a living wage.
To this end they know that the economics of these farms has its economic limits. They understand that it would be wonderful to receive overtime after 40 hours. However, they know that if this were to happen, they would be extremely limited in their hours. Their season is short. To not have the opportunity to work at least 60 hours would mean they would take a huge seasonal reduction in pay. They do not wish to seek new employment but feel it would be necessary if they were to earn the desired income, they need to support their families.
To this reality, they say they can function with the rules as they are presently in place. Any reduction in hours would force the majority to look to new out of State employment. They understand the present legislation and strongly hope that there are no new standards. They are preparing a self-written letter stating this opinion. They have asked me to give them reading materials to help prepare this letter. They will discuss it and plan to sign on each man. We will send this to the Wage Board as their voice on the topic. This is especially important that they have the opportunity to offer their opinion on this ruling.
I am extremely impressed with the level of knowledge this group has as to the importance of the Wage Board. Make no mistake they feel extremely nervous as to the decision coming from this body.
I wanted to share with each of you the feelings of these workers. So often we selfishly only state how it will impact our lives. Make no mistake about it, this decision impacts families here is New York State as well as in Jamaica.
On Monday, August 31st, along with a wide cast of concerned people, I offered testimony to the NYS Wage Board. It was very encouraging to hear the voices of so many people. In all the opinions offered by those in agriculture I felt they presented a very clear vision of what could happen. It was nice to hear voices from younger future farmers in this discussion. In all, I was very pleased to hear the effort put forward.
I am sharing the two testimonies I have offered this year. I can only hope that calm cool minds will see the wisdom in not making this transition any more costly. As many people stated, they accept the legislation, they are asking for time to transition under this act.
Fruit farm A expects to harvest 120,000 bushels of apples this year. History has told them that they should expect, on average, that a person will harvest 100 bushels/day. So this farm will need 1200 man days to harvest this crop. The farm has 24 beds. This means each bed (man) should pick 5000 bushels. So this man has 50 days to accomplish this. In the past the men have averaged 60 hours per week. If we are forced to cut each man’s hours back to 40 hours per week than we will need more days to harvest or more men to accomplish the job.
Weather and fruit ripening dictate that we do not have more time. We must accomplish this task in the 50 days. So the only solution is that we need more men. If a man picks 100 bushels each day then he will harvest 400 bushels per week. So 120,000 bushels divided by 400 bushels will mean we need 300 man weeks if we hold the worker to 40 hours per week. So we have gone from 24 men harvesting 120,000 bushels in 50 days to now needing 30 men to pick the crop.
So we will need 6 more beds and pay transportation cost of $1300 per man, Visa of $190 per man an additional $150 per man travel for extra time and food from port to port. So Fruit Farm A will have to first construct housing for 6 more men. Second, the additional travel will be $1640 plus free housing while on the farm per extra man. This is $9840 additional variable cost to get the same amount of work completed. His costs have risen by 19.5% to get the same amount of work done. Plus the costs of new housing.
In short, this is a deal breaker. The original 24 men will not be happy only getting 40 hours per week. Realistically I expect this group to source employment in other regions. The idle time will no doubt become an issue. Buyers of this crop will not offer a premium for this fruit. They will source the highest quality for the lowest price.
In short, this fruit farm will be priced out of the market. His cost per bushel will be higher than other regions. He has no way to cover the extra labor cost. The employee will be forced to find employment in another state. Packing house jobs, storage, trucking and more will be lost.
There is a reason that for decades agriculture has been exempt from overtime. The seasonal glut needed makes it impossible to fill harvest jobs for such a short window of time. The perishable nature of this commodity is what makes farming different. The fact that we offer overtime at any level will not attract new employees to meet the seasonal needs.
In conclusion, I think New York State agriculture can and will adjust to the 60 hour level. Many will
choose to drop out or convert to agriculture that is mechanized. To move this to a lower level will force a drastic change in our industry. Farmers do not have to farm in New York State. It will be difficult but if they wish to farm they can relocate. I fail to see what industry will rush to fill the void by this exodus. I am asking for a study to validate my claims. To rush to 40 hours without understanding the net effect will be irresponsible. There is no need to add additional burdens on this industry.
Testimony Presented to Wage Board in Syracuse, NY, March 13, 2020
Early in March I had to run an errand to the east side of Buffalo, NY. I was traveling on a major route about 8 AM. The traffic was only a fraction of the normal weekday. In truth, the roads back in the country had more traffic. This was a reminder to me that here in 2020 we are as a State totally committed to the 40 hour work week. This single regulation is the deciding driver to the length of the work week in the non-agricultural environment.
On the farm we do not have the luxury of saying it can wait till Monday and a fresh set of 40 hours. Livestock has to be fed. Animals are giving birth. Cows need to be milked. Fruit and vegetable crops need to be protected from frosts, insects, disease and ultimately harvested at the proper time. The 24-hour necessity of applying these skills makes it impossible to dictate one 40-hour period each seven days that can be able to do the proper job.
Farms of all types are dealing with live products. Just like a doctor cannot tell a pregnant mother to only deliver in his set 40 hour period of service. The current 60 hour standard will impose economic pressures on our farms and their employees. Commodity prices will not offer a bonus to farms who offer overtime wages. If a farm cannot maintain production costs below sales offerings it will go out of business. The loss of this singular farm unfortunately will, in reality, have little impact on total supply. However, if this story is repeated enough it will impact community values. What will have an immediate impact will be the employees who no longer have a job. Really how have we helped improve the quality of life for these employees?
Overtime came into play during the American depression. The unemployment rate was soaring. FDR saw long bread lines and people seeking some employment. He instituted the 40 hour work week. Any hours after 40 would mean the employer would have to pay 150 % of the agreed wage. FDR was quoted as saying no employer would be willing to pay this and remain competitive. The end result was that it forced employers to curtail hours and reach into the unemployed to offer employment. Same amount of work but now it was being shared by more people. In today’s agriculture we do not have a waiting work force wanting employment for many diverse reasons.
We are an import state to meet our seasonal workforce needs. Employees will have little interest in coming to New York State if they cannot get the maximum opportunity to earn wages in a very short window of time. Simply put, employment options in other states will be the benefactor of such legislation. Farms will be forced to divert to less labor intensive crops. Production will contract. Business and employment will decline. Again how are we helping anyone?
If you really stop to think of it every one of us is on a different life path. Yes, we may have many similarities with family and friends but none of us are exactly alike. The reason is because when presented with a “life altering” decision we each have different keys to making that decision.
There is no one perfect formula to how to manage your business. Every farm has select pressure points. In 2020 you will be asked to begin to make choices as to how to coexist with the new Farm Labor Act here in New York State. One choice you will not have is to decide to ignore it. It is the law so we must accept it for what it is and learn to function within its rules.
Most every person I have confronted is nervous as to how to deal with the pending possibility of having a labor union on their farm. At the Becker Forum this last January Brad Goehring, a wine grower from California, addressed the group. California has had many seasons of dealing with labor unions. His message was really quite simple. Your help really has no desire to join a labor union so long as you choose to be a good employer. Less than 10% of the farm labor in California is currently under union direction. Farm workers do not want to be told what they can and cannot do by a union. They most certainly do not wish to have to pay dues.
I feel very confident in stating that as an employer you value your work force. You have bu
ilt your team many times over decades. It is the single most important production piece in your portfolio. As needs and wages changed you found ways to meet these demands. In short you made choices that were in the best interest of your farm and everyone associated with it. This is what being a good employer does. You do not fear a union organizer coming to promise new things which they in truth have no control over. They can claim to say they will get workers higher wages but in truth they do not have that power. You on the other hand can act on your promises.
In 2020 we will need to illustrate to our legislators that we are choosing to comply with this new legislation. To try to undermine the basic tenants of the Act will only encourage new legislation that is not necessary. The Democratic controlled Senate has very little in common with production agriculture. From Niagara County to Albany there is only one Democratic Senator. Senator Rachel May in the 53rd district in the Syracuse area is the lone Senator. Senator Tim Kennedy from Erie County in the 63rd district in South Buffalo is the closest. To further illustrate the divide the Republican Senators in New York have in excess of $5 billion of farm assets in their collective districts. The majority of Democratic Senators have a grand total of $365 million in farm assets. We have an enormous educational challenge ahead of us if we are to garner the needed votes to approve the funding for all the various agricultural programs that flow through Albany.
So, we end by accepting that individually and collectively we have many choices to make in 2020. Individually I trust you will make the best choices for your farm and family. Collectively we need to invest in educating our legislators as to the mutual need for a strong and progressive agriculture in New York State. Unfortunately, we all cannot live on a farm in New York State. We all are consumers of the tremendous products and clean water that are a product of our choices.
As we draw closer to some decision by the New York State Legislature on what will be the details in the final version of the Farm Worker Labor Bill we should try to reflect on what we have seen.
To begin with, I was very proud of the quality of each and every testimony given by our industry. No two were alike. Each exposed a unique aspect of agriculture. Regardless if the testimony was from Morrisville or out on Long Island the message was consistent. Here are some of the conclusions offered by everyone.
To begin, this issue will impact all types of agriculture. Fruit, dairy vegetable or any other type will be impacted. Each stated the reality that they are Price Takers. Supply and demand will dictate the returns. We do not have the ability to increase our prices to offset increases in our individual operation. We either can or cannot succeed under the existing price structure. Unlike public government we cannot vote in an increase.
Every report stated a huge respect and dependency on their employees. They knew how dependent they were in having these people in their operation. Every effort was made to meet employee needs.
Almost every farm reported long repeated years of consistent service. Likewise, employees when asked reported a comfort in the relationship they had with their employers.
What struck me was the reality that we were being asked to support a legislative change to a system that was not broken or under stress. Usually new legislation is created to replace flawed conditions. Could each situation be improved? Yes, of course. It appeared that when an issue did arise the employee and employers were able to discuss and make changes.
The two large issues seem to be collective bargaining and overtime. Farms in general were not really opposed to giving employees the right to collective bargaining so long as they were assured of a no strike clause. As one farmer stated we have been “collectively bargaining” for years with our employees on a farm by farm basis.
Employees that testified showed a keen understanding of the economics of the farms they were working on. They understood that the farms were offering all that was possible. They also seemed to understand that yes it would be nice to receive more money but the farm could not pay 50% more and not have any more work accomplished. They wanted to have the unlimited hours and the stability of being employed in one place. They did not wish to join so many other Americans that today are struggling to make ends meet with two jobs. I wager many US citizens wish they could have greater than 39 hours of work each week like these farm employees.
In short, it really comes down to the fact that in production agriculture we work on often times impossible margins. Competition for market share too often leaves low returns. I think these hearings have actually exposed the true economic reality of agriculture. It is not that farms are willingly underpaying their help but that they simply are maxed out. So long as technology does not offer a cheaper way to bring the food to the market place we will see this struggle to satisfy everyone’s expectations.
Farming is certainly not for everyone. It is a demanding vocation with mixed returns. I feel it will always be dependent on world, national and local supply and demand. We are all very fortunate to have people who are willing to accept the challenge of agriculture and those who find value in working in it. Governments have the ability to make farms less profitable but they do not have the ability to guarantee economic success. While some may idealistically state this is solely a moral issue the reality of it is a simple question of basic economics.
My name is Paul Baker. I grew up in Niagara County on a fruit and vegetable farm. I was the fifth generation to work on this farm. My Son Brett would follow me and be the last, sixth generation. I have always lived with “farm workers.” My father worked for over 25 years with the same migrant family from Florida. In the winter they harvested citrus in the Ocala area of Florida. When the citrus was harvested they traveled to our farm to harvest our crops. Each mid-November they returned to Florida to the citrus.
I grew up with these people. After work I played basketball with them in the barn. Once, when I was struggling with my high school French studies, my Dad’s foreman, a WWII vet, made me only converse with him in French. A language he learned while serving our country in the war. Later when the farms labor was from Jamaica my son would go each night to the Housing and enjoy music with the men, his friends. I tell you this because in agriculture we have a very strong bond with our help. They really are an extended family. For 18 years we welcomed basically the same men to our farm to complete the growing cycle. The housing was always very close to our own. After my Father passed away my Mother was asked if she felt unsafe living so close to the camp? Her reply was” I feel much more at risk when they are not there.”
I tell you this multi-generational tale to try to illustrate the unique bond we have with our employees. To suggest that we would not have their best interest in mind is to not comprehend this bond. If we mistreated our employees, then why did they come back each year?
I have heard in the two previous hearings statements to the effect that farms could always pay more to their employees. This is not an economic issue but a moral one. Over the years we have had to find ways to offer increased wages. Cost of living continue to increase. History will support me when I tell you that agriculture has met this challenge through research improvements in farming practices. Higher yielding orchards, improved root stocks, labor saving equipment have been ways we have been able to meet these increases in labor costs.
In principle I find many of the items in this bill misleading. To people who do not know our history you would be led to believe our employees do have basic protections such as workers compensation or unemployment. All of our housing is state and often federally inspected. Farm owners, for years, attend self-improvement seminars on compliance and ways to improve human resources.
I think it is time for both sides to try to find ways to continue this long positive history of farm employees in New York State. To do this, both sides must agree that at the conclusion of this effort we will have a strong base for agriculture in our State. Only then can both sides continue. Yes this is a moral issue. Unfortunately, even in houses of worship they find it necessary to pass the plate. Economics is a fact of life.
I think I speak for farms across this State. We are willing to discuss issues and find solutions to meet your request for the big questions of the day, those are at what level can we afford overtime and collective bargaining, so long as it has a no strike clause. I hear many want a mandatory day of rest included. I would offer that often this should be left to the wishes of the employees and the seasonal pressures of the moment.
I am here to tell you that the system is not broken. We do not have employees on strike or in the streets carrying protest banners. Can we improve conditions? Every human resource situation today can only reply, of course.
Thank you for the opportunity to present some objective observations from my position as the Executive Director of NYS Horticultural Society during the last ten years. For 40 years earlier I was the owner operator of Baker Farms in Niagara County. This was a fruit and vegetable fresh operation. My observations then come from two different perspectives. I have real world farm “boots on the ground” and organizational experiences.
I applaud the efforts to have multiple hearings so that every side of this discussion may be uncovered.
In my opinion, the Senate and Assembly bills we are here to discuss have long lasting implications for all of New York State agriculture and the entire up state economy. In short we need to get this right!
To begin, I am certain that everyone here has the most sincere intentions to make certain all farm workers are given every protection under the law. Farming is different from almost any other occupation. It requires total dedication to your craft. Traditional norms often do not apply. Societies have attempted and failed, such as in the Communist models, to remove the farm from the owner. In my opinion, farming is in many ways similar to being a parent. Just as when your child has a need, you address it with no regards to time. When a crop needs to be harvested or a herd needs to be milked it has to be addressed. Farming seldom can be slotted in an 8 hour or 40 hour time slot.
When you select agriculture as your career path you accept certain realities. Just as one accepts if you are a doctor you cannot dictate when your expectant mother will deliver her child.
Agriculture, unlike public government is dependent on producing products that will meet public demand. Each farm must produce and market within the economics of the supply and demand chains. Unlike State Government that can dictate annual increases in minimum wage. Agriculture pricing is a product of world and national supplies. Buyers will seek the highest quality for the lowest price. Always have and always will. Our grocery stores will never be void of the highest quality produce and food products. The sad truth is that if New York fails to produce one gallon of milk or one bushel of apples our local shelves will remain 100% stocked.
It is this reality that brings me to my question for this body. What is the desired end best result from this legislation? It will not serve any farm worker if we create legislation that does not allow agriculture to remain competitive in this food marketing supply chain. If farms cannot meet payrolls they will be forced to close or dramatically alter their product choices. They will be forced to downsize, move away from labor intensive agriculture or close. In each of these examples it does not offer greater opportunities for farm employees.
We have the opportunity to calmly explore numerous options beyond the current language in the Senate and Assembly bills. I honestly feel that the final wording of these Bills can be drafted that will allow NYS Agriculture to remain a leader in production. It also can find ways to mutually protect both the employer and employee from unfair labor practices. No one wins if the final legislation is not forward thinking in ways to see Agriculture continue in New York State.
I am encouraged that we are having these hearings. I pray for cool heads. I know that farm workers are some of the hardest and most talented workers. All of New York Agriculture is united in finding ways to protect and reward farm employees. To use an old saying we must be very careful in drafting this legislation so that we do not “throw the baby out with the bath water!”
Thank you for the opportunity to address this hearing.
Mindset of Agriculture Today While we Await the Outcome of Senate 2837
I thought it might help to hear what is on the minds of Agriculture in New York today. As the Director of 3 farm boards, I receive, on a daily basis, calls from farms asking me to project the outcome of this legislation. Nature does not allow these farms to set everything on the back burner and await the final outcome. They must make real world decisions today that may or may not really be in their best interest depending on this piece of legislation. Here are a few of those decisions/questions;
Should I put my farm up for sale today before this Bill becomes a reality? There is little question that land values will take a dip if this Bill passes. I know of large farms that have in fact sold or have placed their farms up for sale before land values fall.
What about investing in new land, equipment, storages, employee housing both new and improved are just a few of the questions that are on hold.
Should I return my seed/trees for a credit or plant it? I am unsure if I will be able to afford the labor cost later this year.
I actually have dairy farms that are slaughtering new calves because they cannot afford to feed them under current economics. Just meeting current bills is an impossible task. If this Bill passes as currently drafted they see no path forward.
Estate planning? How do we plan for tomorrow not knowing if we can survive the future costs here in New York? Young farmers are looking to other careers.
How do I craft contracts for 2019 if I cannot project my labor costs?
Time to lock in on seasonal recruitment of my labor for 2019. Can I sign a work order if I do not know the terms for myself or my employees? H2A agreements need to be crafted and advertised. If I limit my men to 40 hours will I be able to attract my experienced labor to my farm?
Most every farm at this date is locked into the 2019 crop. They are very uncertain as to the rules of employment and what this will mean for their operations. Nature will not wait. Crops need to be set in a timely basis to meet harvest before the frost of winter arrives. Overhead dictates farms must move forward. The costs of not doing so would be equally damaging.
I understand that we need to ensure that every employee is protected under the rules of fair labor. I see this discussion having huge long term effects on the state economy. We are in the midst of annual minimum wage increases here in New York. Due to the chronic lack of New Yorkers who will work on farms we must recruit from outside our state borders and often from outside our national borders. In order to manage our farms the reality is we must attract workers to our State. Farms, out of necessity, are using the federal program H2a.
Farms this year will have no choice but to accept the final language of this legislation for crop year 2019. The real impact will come as soon as crop year 2020. Once the true cost of labor is known, farms will drastically shift into new farming practices. If they see that they cannot pass on the new labor costs they will lose their markets. Traditional crops will have to be reassessed as to their feasibility. In short, agriculture will have no choice but to take on a whole new look. Only time will tell if this look is good for both farms and their employees.
I just spent two full days taking two groups around Albany. The first day they were from the Berry Industry. On the second day, they were primarily apple growers, but they had other tree fruit interests. Each group had budget items to discuss. At every one of my 30 visits we closed with a Q and A about the possibility of new legislative action on the Farm Omnibus issues. Of all the possible issues, the possibility of overtime at any level but most of all 40 hours looms high.
I am not here to cast any negatives on any sector of our industry. The reality is this as I see it. Dairy is locked in a struggle to cover overhead while they continue to out produce demand. They have no legal right to hire foreign workers like the H2A. Overnight, fruit is seeing that its traditional top four varieties are now listed in the back of their consumer’s demand. The rapid decline of demand for Macs, Cortland, Empire and Red Delicious are leaving producers with over 50% of their acreage in a less desirable demand position. Dairy and fruit are the top two categories in New York. I need not list the issues that are present in the remaining crops. Are they important? Cornell studies say apples account for 1.2 billion dollars annually. Regardless of misconceptions by too many New Yorkers, agriculture is a major economic driver we cannot afford to lose.
One quick takeaway that I think is important to mention here. In both Albany and DC we see a huge
changing of senior leadership. Albany and DC are having to adjust to a large percentage of new legislators. They are loud and they intend to quickly make their mark. Educating these new legislators is a very new challenge. They arrive, in most instances, with strong convictions. Often times their sources of information are based on perceptions from social media verses facts. So we must defuse these already strong perceptions before we can to move ahead in any discussions.
Here are two examples of what we are facing. In the Senate Veteran Committee there are only two members with any military experience. In the Assembly Agriculture Committee similarly there are only two members with any real agriculture experience. We are seeing committees making policy for us all that have no real world understanding of their respective topics. I have echoed this to you all before. If you decide to not speak, many will fill your absence that have no understanding of your world.
Regardless of what you might think you have heard or hoped for this issue will appear shortly after they complete the arduous budget debates in early April. Perception becomes reality. If you have ever been to either the legislative chambers in Albany or DC you must first pass inspection for security reasons. Trust me when I tell you the ‘weapons of misconceptions’ that are sneaking threw are very dangerous. We must make every effort to continue to be in discussions prior to these legislative floor hearings. I believe, for the most, part people wish the best for each other. Too often however we all may rush to judgment before we truly comprehend the entire topic. We have time between now and the end of this legislative session. I urge you to get involved. It is nearly impossible to get rid of bad legislation. It is often time best served to head it off before it becomes reality.
No one has a lock on tomorrow. We each can offer our most sincere educated estimate about the future. We must try to stay within our known borders and then project what could possibly happen. With total 100% certainty the political climate in Albany in 2019 will be changed. We know for certain that all three chambers now rest comfortably within one party. This makes passage of party programs significantly easier to obtain. Based upon the history of the last decade, it is safe to assume new legislation will be offered up that will significantly impact our industry. The question yet to be decided will be whether we can withstand these revolutionary changes?
The most obvious issue that will be facing NYS agriculture will it be mandated, like all other segments of labor, to pay employees on a 40-hour work week and pay time and a half? Collective bargaining is also of concern. For today let us simply look at time and a half on a commercial fruit farm. To do this we will make a few assumptions. We will assume that for this farm to maintain a credible work force that they are in the H2A program. Last year the adverse effect wage rate was $12.83. We do not know the new one but it most likely will be in the range of $13 plus. For today I will use last year’s rate. For my calculations I am going to say harvest was 10 weeks. I am going
to say the farm employed 50 workers. The average work week in harvest was 60 hours. In 2018 then that farm had a weekly hourly outlay just for harvest wages of $38,490. (60 hours X $12.83= $769.80 per employee. Now X 50 employees = $38,490 per week). This, of course, does not consider State unemployment and workers comp related costs. If we now do the same exercise at time and a half for this same farm, we see his direct costs rise to $2 shy of $900 per man per week. So, his new payroll will be up (40 hours X $12.83= $513.20 plus 20 hours at $19.25= $385). So, the new weekly pay check will be then $898.20. Same crew and not one extra bushel harvested. This farm will then have a weekly payroll of harvest employees alone of $44,910 plus other employment charges (50 employees X $898.20= $44.910).
For our simple example, Fruit Farm X has an increase of $6,420 per week ($44,910 – $38,490 = $6420). Now over 10 weeks we see an increase to harvest employees alone of $64,200. Same production.
The NYS minimum wage in 2019 is $11.10. This is $3.85 above the federal minimum wage. If you are in H2A you are paying $5.58 above the federal minimum wage. Farm wages are not by any means the lowest in the land. They greatly exceed the average small business sectors up and down main street. We need to make this point. Each farm employee creates multiple off farm jobs in NYS. Clearly NYS fruit farms cannot remain competitive if they must absorb these new estimated charges. A compromise must be reached, or we will see NYS forever altered. I remind everyone of the stark reality that once a farm operation closes its doors it never returns. Are we ready to see this radicle change in our State? Now is the time for everyone to get concerned. Currently, we have not seen the legislation we did our math homework on in this State. Today is not too late to begin a very serious debate.
I am asking each of you to rethink all the issues. As farmers, we are not immune to annual changes in weather, technology and markets. It comes as no surprise to anyone that labor availability is tied to higher wages. Agriculture in NYS is tied to a very high usage of labor. We are not an Iowa corn-based economy. As the new year arrives each of you need to educate yourself on all levels. Take advantage of educational programs such as the Becker Forum coming in January 2019. Reach out to your respective NYS legislators and have a discussion with them as to what is at stake. Support the efforts of your respective organizations that are presenting logical debates to many of these proposals. If you fail to speak, I assure you this void will be filled by voices that have no real skin in the game. Action will occur. I encourage you to be a part of it.